Scholarly Technical Education Publication Series (STEPS) Vol. 1
Myanmar Perspectives on Transforming Education and Training in Support of the Green Economy
Dr. Mya Mya Oo
Rector and Professor
Yangon Technological University
Ministry of Science and Technology, Myanmar
Green economy is defined based on six sectors. They are: (a) Renewable Energy (b) Green building (c) Clean transportation (d) Water management (e) Waste management and (f) Land management. Green economy is anchored on green energy generation in which the source of energy is from renewables instead of fossil fuel.1 Renewable energy reduces the environmental risks because it is emission-free. Along with this, Myanmar which is rich in natural resources is exploring programs to make the most of its natural wealth that is why it needs human resources who are skilled technocrats, researchers and engineers.
It is a fact that human resources development (HRD) is as important as capital investment for the economic development of a nation. Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), in this aspect, plays an important role. For this reason, Myanmar is giving high priority to TVET for its sustainable human resource development. In particular, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and the Department of Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE) laid down many policies and principal objectives to achieve the sustainable development of TVET sectors.
The government’s top priority is on strengthening, upgrading, expanding and opening new technological universities, Colleges, institutes, technical training schools, and opening special training courses for the skilled workers and highly qualified human resources. Competency-based curricula, new courses and researches in line with the green economy are also introduced in TVET programs.
Key words: green economy, renewable energy, biotechnology, poverty alleviation, rural development
The world is facing many challenges such as financial crisis, climatic change, food security and the rising demand for energy. For an agro-based country like Myanmar, the development of the agricultural and livestock breeding sector of the rural areas, climatic change and food security, higher income for the rural people and poverty alleviation are key issues that need to be addressed with all seriousness. Today, industry and economic sectors of the world are changing rapidly due to the advances in science and technology, especially in the field of engineering. As a result, there are corresponding transformations in the patterns of occupation and qualifications of job.
In Myanmar, 70% of the population lives in rural areas and is considered as the main work force of the country. They are responsible for boosting the production of goods and economic development of the rural area as well as serving as the driving force of national economic development.
Being a developing country, Myanmar has plans to formulate policies, guidelines and strategies not only to meet the current manpower needs but also to address the human resources requirements of the future trends in industry and economy by: (a) introducing competency-based curricula and new courses in line with the green economy (b) introducing entrepreneurial training to promote selfemployment (c) establishing more training institutions, and (d) promoting advanced technological training, research and development.
The development of the human resource is as important as capital investment for the economic development of a nation. For the sake of human resource development, Myanmar has always given high priority on education with the vision “to create an education system that will generate a learning society capable of facing the challenges of the Knowledge Age”. In line with its vision, the government has directed MOST to focus on restructuring and enhancing the quality and quantity of teachers, and establishing new infrastructures. Along with this, TVET will continue to be a high priority in Myanmar for sustainable HRD. Many engineering professionals, technicians and trained persons have been produced by technological universities, Colleges, institutes and training under the TVET system.
In Myanmar, TVET is being expanded significantly to meet the requirements for skilled manpower. In this context, government’s technical institutes are the backbone for producing skilled manpower in the field of engineering for the government sector and private sector. Therefore, the government, specifically MOST is paying attention to the development and performances of technical institutes to meet current requirements of the country
Principal Objectives and Function of the Department of Technical and Vocational Education
The principal objectives of the DTVE are stated as follows:
- to train technicians, skilled and semi-skilled workers,
- to formulate the programs to link teaching with on-the-job experience,
- to set priorities for occupations and skills which are most useful in practical fields,
- organizing training programs in vocational subjects for dropped out students in various levels of the formal education system,
- to train and nurture skilled technicians and experts who are imbued with a sense of conscientiousness and convictions to cherish the state.
Moreover, the functions of DTVE may be enumerated as follows:
- to implement policies and guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Science and Technology,
- to plan for the expansion of technical and vocational schools, institutes, and Colleges,
- to plan for the attainment of highly qualified and proficient teaching staff, and
- to be responsible for matters relating to budget allotment, purchase of tools, equipment, and other teaching aids.
In building a modern developed nation, the State is encouraging development of human resources, advanced technology such as Information Technology, Biotechnology, and Nuclear Technology and research work. Myanmar is rich in both the underground and aboveground natural resources. In order to tap such resources, the important thing is to have enough human resources such as skilled technocrats, researchers and engineers. Moreover, in nurturing human resources, MOST is turning out engineering diploma and doctorate holders, computer experts and those skilled in applied science by opening technological universities and universities of computer studies. All in all, technologists, computer technicians, engineers and biotechnologists are to work for the emergence of a modern developed nation being a foundation of the green economy.
Development of Government Technical Institution in Myanmar
The government is making all efforts to enable the nation to keep abreast with the globalized world. HRD is the key to a country’s progress and development that prompted the government in strengthening, upgrading, expanding and opening new technological universities, Colleges, institutes, technical training schools and offering special training courses in order to produce highly qualified human resources.
Before 1988, there were only 11 government technical institutes, computer College and 16 technical high schools in Myanmar with a limited number of students in few universities and Colleges. Only those residing in some major cities, including Yangon and Mandalay, were able to attend the Colleges where majority of those institutions are localized. However, accessibility to professional education was a concern for those who are from the states and divisions with limited access that resulted to limited technicians in the states and divisions. However, after 1988, programs for HRD had been laid down and implemented. In this regard, 24 special development regions were designated in the states and divisions to bring about equal learning opportunities. One university, one government technical College and one computer College each were opened in every special development region along with a 100-bed hospital each. Since 19th January 2007, 26 government technological Colleges have been upgraded to the status of technological universities and 4 government technical institutes to the status of government technological Colleges. Currently, a total of 27 technological universities, 5 government technological Colleges, 7 government technical institutes, 2 technical training school and 24 universities of computer studies, have been opened in special development regions. With those professional institutions, local national races are able to pursue professional education, thereby, widely contributing to the development of human resources. As a result, the development gap narrowed in all parts of the nation.
Sustainable Development of Vocational and Technical Education and Training
In the sector of nurturing technological human resources, it is of paramount importance to link the acquired technologies with practical work. To upgrade technological universities, government technological Colleges, government technical institutes, universities of computer studies and government computer Colleges in Myanmar, modern teaching aids, laboratory equipment and machineries such as Computer Numerical Control (CNC), including Lathes, CNC Milling Machines, and CNC Machine Centers have been installed to fulfill the needs and to link the acquired technologies with practical work. Moreover, for subject-wise references, digital e-library system and internet facilities for collection of data and references have been established in all universities and Colleges under MOST.
To meet the required amount of qualified teachers for technological universities, teachers’ training programs were started at Yangon Technological University (YTU) and Mandalay Technological University (MTU) since 1997. YTU is the most senior university in Myanmar for engineering studies which was set up in 1924 as a Department of Yangon University and was upgraded to the level of the Faculty of Engineering in 1946. In 1964, YTU became a separate university while MTU was established on 1st October 1991. YTU, MTU, and a computer university, which were previously under the Ministry of Education, have been transferred to MOST since January 1, 1997. YTU and MTU became the training centers for producing highly qualified and proficient teaching staff to fulfill the requirements of the technological universities and research departments under the said Ministry. In order to properly manage these two senior universities and the technological universities, 13 technological universities from Upper Myanmar became affiliated with MTU and 13 technological universities from lower Myanmar became affiliated with YTU. The Board of Technology Promotion under the Ministry including the professors from YTU and MTU reformulated the development of the syllabus and curriculum for technological universities and government technical Colleges based on the curricula and syllabus of wellknown engineering universities from abroad. Teachers are trained to keep abreast with the new curriculum to sustain its quality. Therefore, professors from YTU and MTU provide the refresher courses in the respective fields of engineering studies to the teaching staff from technological universities during vacation periods. Moreover, teachers from YTU and MTU gave lectures to the students who are attending the technological universities by using video-conferencing facilities.
In addition, due to various developments in each and every sector, engineering technicians are now improving their competency as well. Myanmar is now working together with ASEAN countries according to regional development programs. In line with these programs, MOST through DTVE is undertaking cooperative actions with some institutions from ASEAN countries.
Policy Support to Transform TVET for Green Economy
The core idea of a green economy must be poverty alleviation, environmental sustainability through maintaining biodiversity, and the well-being of all the people. The population of a country is the working force of the nation. In Myanmar, rural people who make up about 70% of the population are the main working force, and most of them are engaged in agricultural and livestock farming which are responsible for boosting the production of goods and economic development of rural areas being the main engine of national economic development.
In the time of State Peace and Development Council, the government adopted the five rural development programs, which are fundamental for rural development and alleviation of poverty. Myanmar’s Third Short-Term Five Year Plan (2001- 2002 to 2005-2006) includes: ensuring smooth transport; supplying sufficient water; promoting education; enhancing health care; and ensuring economic development. As a result, peasants can boost the production of not only rice but also cash crops such as beans and pulses which are expected to produce higher income. According to the data and statistics about Millennium Development Goals realized by the UNDP and other relevant departments, the indexes of poverty were declining in Myanmar. Rural areas enjoyed development. This was due to the projects for improvement in the agricultural and livestock breeding sector and the five rural development programs. However, many of rural people still live in poverty because of the high production costs, unsatisfactory profit due to low productivity and poor quality, growing population, and rising cost of living. Therefore, in the time of the Union Government, through the National Level Workshop on Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation, more effective programs are adopted as follows:
- to widely encourage the choice of better grains as vertical extension is more effective than horizontal extension,
- to encourage all farmers to use marketable and high-yield grains of paddy as they can get handsome profits if they can double their outputs and their highly saleable produces,
- to seek means for cost reduction to remedy the issue of low profits due to high cost of production,
- for departments and villages to work together for the practice of collective purchase and ploughing fields alternately as many farmers do not get prices as high as it should be due to the fact that after reaping paddy, they pile it on the embankments of the field and then pay attention to ploughing fields to grow peas. This has adverse effect on paddy quality and causes more loss and wastage. Moreover, they need to use more combined harvesters and farm machines to remedy delay of thrashing paddy and ploughing fields,
- to distribute agricultural inputs such as seeds of crops, fertilizers, pesticides, ploughing equipment and farm subsidies to every farmer, and to work with the team system to improve quality and reduce costs,
- to make microfinance more effective for those programs,
- to form teams to have educational forum on agricultural methods for groups of farmers,
- to reduce cost of production in the livestock breeding sector, to raise the incomes by improving quality; to encourage working collectively for greater market share; and to encourage manageable-scale breeding of poultry, pigs and cattle for secondary incomes, and integrated farming if under favourable conditions, as farmers can get primary incomes by exercising double and trip
- to transform from individual into commercial production, then into One Village One Product (OVOP) system for alternative means of secondary income, and
- in the exercise of OVOP system, to encourage not only production of agricultural produce but also other products such as handicrafts, arts items, household utensils, and cottage industries such as lacquer-ware, glazed pots, silk-wares, silverware, bronze works, looming, tailoring, and micro industries.
In relation to the ten programs, previous government encouraged agricultural and livestock farming, but could not integrate individuals, investments, methods and produce for sales in markets. Therefore, the 10 programs were planned by the Union Government to encourage establishment of rural level cooperative societies.
In order to meet the green development, the objectives of the Ministry of Science and Technology are as follows:
- to keep carrying out research and development tasks for national economy development
- to utilize the national resources so as to develop the national economy, and raise the living standard of the people,
- to disseminate the technical know-how achieved from the research and development tasks to the industrial and agricultural sectors in order to enhance the production,
- to plan and carry out human resource development programs so as to obtain specialists and professionals in Science and Technology,
- to analyze and test raw materials and finished products and to implement quality control and standardization of industrial products,
- to nurture and produce skillful workers and technicians by means of advanced science and technology,
All researches are carried out in all technological universities, and research centers under MOST are laid down in the following guidelines as supporting program to develop the national economy. The guidelines are to (a) substitute the imported goods, (b) support national defense, (c) promote new and renewable energy sectors, (d) develop the rural area for poverty alleviation, (e) support health services, (f) upgrade the national industrial sector, and (g) turn up waste to value-added materials. The above mentioned programs and guidelines are the major supporting policies to transform TVET for green economy.
Renewable Energy and Rural area Development in Myanmar
Renewable energy is necessary for reducing poverty and promoting economic growth in rural areas by providing basic energy need for rural households, processing agricultural commodities and to support general rural electrification programs. As a step towards energy sector reform, the Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Electrical Power, and Ministry of Science and Technology undertake a joint effort to evaluate the current state of using renewable energy and manpower training in the country and to formulate sector development strategies and action programs.
As electrification employing solar energy is renewable and environmentally friendly in nature, top consideration has been given to utilize solar energy as an option to be used in the rural area. Presently, solar energy is being introduced in rural area and is using through photovoltaic cells to generate electricity for charging battery and driving motors to pump water for irrigation.
Myanmar has potentially available solar energy in around 51973.8 terra watt hours per year. Solar energy is abundantly available in Central Dry Zone Area of Myanmar. Solar Power Village Electrification Scheme was implemented and research and development (R&D) works on prototypes of solar equipment were performed by Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department (MSTRD) and Department of Physics of the Yangon Technological University (YTU). The Department of Engineering Physics and Electrical and Electronic Research Center of Mandalay Technological University (MTU) jointly implemented installation of 3 KW photovoltaic power systems in a remote classroom of technical schools and institutes under MOST which are located in remote areas that cannot access to the national grid line.
In order to minimize the gaps in educational facilities between the city and the rural areas and to catch up with the developing world, MOST has laid down a plan to electrify those schools and institutes by using solar energy. Conversion efficiency 14%, 16 x 160 W solar modules were used to supply 10 computers, one overhead projector and IP Star internet equipment and 10 fluorescent lamps in each school. Twenty-four (24) V-nominal voltage systems were applied in order to save valuable energy. The team has carefully designed and tested the solar system to be applicable anywhere in the country at a minimum cost.
Most materials are designed and constructed by MTU and all of them are in compliance with international codes of practices. Both poly-crystalline and amorphous solar panels were used in order to evaluate their performance and application in real life. As a result, two sets of 3 KW solar energy systems were installed at the Government Technical High School (THS) at Putao and Kamtee (both of them are located northern- most part of the country and having harsh weather conditions).
The sunshine availability in both townships is 4 hours per day. Up to now, there is no indication of malfunctioning of the systems while utilizing it in full load. The students who are attending at government THS can access the internet up to 4 hours per days by using solar power. The only problem with this project is that Myanmar enables to fabricate solar cells which used state-of-the-art technology. However, the Ministry planned to install such system in most of the technical schools operating all over the country to boost the education status of the rural area.
Investigative studies for hydropower potential have already been conducted in 268 locations, resulting in an available total capacity of 39720 MW. At present, 753 MW capacity of Hydropower potential has been exploited. Thirty six (36) projects are set up and 14 projects are under construction and another 29 projects are under plan.
Village-scale hydropower application of primitive wooden wheel type to variety of small modern turbine system exists in mountainous regions at local commercial scale. Private entrepreneurs are trying to promote their products and several commercial scale activities appear in Myanmar. Ongoing research in mini-hydro plants under MOST are the design and construction of different types of turbines, micro-hydropower system and synchronous generator for micro-hydropower plant.
Myanmar has more than 2800 km of coastline with numerous small creeks suitable for harnessing the tidal energy (1m–6m difference) with the application of appropriate technology which is available for electrification of rural remote villages, which are far from the national grid and situated in areas along the coast of Myanmar. By providing the above projects, the remote rural villages will have electricity which will greatly improve their knowledge through exposure to media like the television, hence, will create an impact on their social, economic and cultural life.
Myanmar has potentially available Wind Energy of 360.1 (Terra Watt hours) TWh per year (NEDO 1997). Promising areas to harness wind energy are in three regions, namely Hilly Regions of Chin and Shan States, Coastal Regions in the South and Western part and Central Myanmar. On going to academic research are design and construction of wind turbine, house-hold wind generator, modeling and simulation of self-exciting induction generator, development of wind resources map of Myanmar and study on the use of evaluated windmill tower.
The Wind Turbine Project had been constructed by the Department of Renewable Energy in the Technological University (KyaukSe) under MOST.7 The aim of the project is to support the lighting in rural and remote areas in Myanmar where there is no electricity. Furthermore, it is also to develop the economics and living standard of the people in this area.
The 10 ft-Wind Turbine (1.8kW) installation and testing have been done at the Shwetharlyoug Mountain in KyaukSe Township. This research is designed for small wind energy unit for battery charging system. The turbine type is a threeblade system in horizontal type. This wind turbine consists of five portions. They are blades, permanent magnet generator (axial flux type generator), metal works, charger and charge controller and inverter. A 10-ft Wind Turbine was successfully completed and it was established at Government Technical High School (Ahmar) in Ayeyarwady Division, and a 1.2 KW wind turbine was also installed at Dattaw Mountain in KyaukSe Township. The installations of the wind turbines perfectly serve the lighting purpose in the monastery there. At present, upgrading of the 3 KW wind turbine are being done for Nargis area and other remote areas in Myanmar especially in places where there are no electricity. This is to show the government’s genuine effort in successfully implementing the project.
If the 3 KW wind turbine project will be successfully finished, wind energy will be a good support to obtain electricity for rural and remote areas in Myanmar. In the future, research is recommended to focus on wind turbine which can achieve power rating from KW to MW for a more reliable and economical design of wind turbine for these areas in Myanmar.
Biogas Energy for Rural Development
In Myanmar, nearly 52.8% of the total land area is covered with forest. Out of which 30.5% are reserved forests and 69.5% are unreserved ones. Almost 64% of primary energy is being supplied in the form of Biomass. Thus, consumption of biomass in the form of fuel-wood, charcoal, agriculture residue and animal waste has been exclusive.6 In promoting the government’s drive against deforestation, it encourages the application of Biomass Biological Energy and Biomass Thermochemical Energy from animal waste and agricultural waste. In Myanmar, millions of tons of various crops are sown annually. Based on the crop production, many tons of crop residues can be increasingly available. In the central region, there are so many cattle farms especially in Mandalay, Sagaing and Magway Division. The availability of animal excreta in Myanmar is more than 32 million tons per year.
For the development of the rural areas, economical biogas digesters need to be constructed there (i) to get biogas for cooking and generating electricity, (ii) to get a wood-substituted fuel, and (iii) to improve the rural environment in agricultural sector and in livestock sector.
Since 2002, 151 of 100, 50, 25 cubic meter in size, fixed dome type electricity producing biogas plants, using anaerobic fermentation process in which cow dung is used as a raw material, have been constructed and utilized in Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway Division and Northern Shan State. They can drive a 25 HP gas engine and 15 KVA generator, using biogas produced from cow dung.7 All houses, monasteries and streets in these villages have been provided lighting powered by biogas for two hours in the early mornings and four hours in the evenings.
In 2008, a 100-cubic meters in size, fixed dome type biogas plant was constructed at dairy cow breeding farm in Mandalay Division. It can produce biogas for cooking, chopping the forage for cows and producing electricity to provide light to the whole farm. At the same time, twenty five cubic meter in size, fixed dome type biogas plant using human wastes as a raw material was constructed at the Sinmin cement factory. Biogas from that plant can be utilized for cooking and the effluent from biogas plant is used as organic fertilizer for plant growth. In 2009, the project of 6 cubic meters to 12 cubic meters family-sized, fixed dome type biogas digester has been started by biogas research group under MOST to disseminate information on multi-utilization of biogas which provide beneficial support for rural area development. The biogas research department coordinates with the people in the rural areas to promote plans for biogas production and utilization in cooking, lighting by gas lamp, and producing electricity driven by 2 HP engine. In 2009, about 23 family-sized, fixed dome type biogas plants have been constructed and utilized in Nay Pyi Taw, Mandalay, Ayeyarwady Division and Eastern Shan State. From one family-sized biogas digester, 30 gals per day to 50 gals per day of effluent slurry as organic fertilizer can be obtained and it can be used in soaking seeds for germination, spraying on the plant for growth, feeding to pigs and fishes, keeping as value-added organic fertilizer.
Replacement with the LED bulbs which are electricity-saving bulbs is going to be carried out in place of 20 watt-fluorescent lamp in the existing biogas plants constructed by MOST. Replacement with 5 watt-LED lamp consumes 3-4 times less energy than 20 watt fluorescent lamps.
Biomass Thermo-chemical Energy
In the case of Biomass Thermo-chemical Energy Sector, Biomass resources utilized for power generation in Myanmar are paddy husk and bagasse. In SME sector application, some private rice mills have been using rice husk as permanent fuel in driving steam turbine many years ago. Currently, these systems can be improved commercially. More than 1000 KW capacity of electricity can be produced from gas for private sectors. Some private companies in Myanmar exported their Biomass Gasification Systems to the neighboring country and some are being tried to produce the Biomass gasifier by means of joint venture system with neighboring country.
Under MOST’s governance, a woodchip down draft gasifier had been constructed at the Technological University (KyaukSe). This project is aimed to support lighting for under-developed villages. In this system, tar was removed by mechanical treatment or physical treatment. Many problems were observed in down-draft gasifier. But it still required technological and financial support from the developed countries.
An ongoing project is being undertaken on design and construction of smallscale fluidized bed gasifier. In this project, appropriate technology and some facilities are needed to measure sand and fuel ratio, air flow rate, diameter and number of air nozzles concerning power output and others. Therefore, smallscale fluidized bed model gasifier will be constructed and will be focused on large-scale design of gasifier.
Bioethanol produced from molasses and starchy materials such as broken rice and corn are used as transportation fuel to substitute for gasoline. Thus, five hundred (500) gals per day, two 3000 gals per day and 15,000 gals per day in capacity of 99.5% ethanol plants have been constructed by Myanmar Chemical Engineers Groups (MCEG) in Myanmar.
Various oil products such as biodiesel using crude palm oil, used cooking oil, waste from rice bran oil factory and especially Jatropha curcas oil as raw materials, are also going to be sampled for the research program to substitute for the petrol diesel.7 In addition, pilot plant scales of biodiesel plants in some of the regions in Myanmar have been installed to be utilized in driving agricultural machineries.
R & D activities in biofuels are as follows:
- Production of bioethanol from lignocelluloses by enzymatic technique
- Preparation of bioethanol sieve for dehydration of ethanol
- Biodiesel production by enzymatic technique
- Preparation of biodiesel by methanol bubble method
- Acid/ Base catalyzed esterification reaction for preparation of biodiesel from high free fatty acid oil.
- Exploration of liquid rich microalgae for biodiesel production
- Pyrolysis of waste plastics using synthesized catalysts for production of fuel oil.
- Study on low temperature types fuel cells
Organic Farming and Biofertilizer for Agricultural Development
Farmers who have already had considerable experience of coping with adverse climatic events will have to adapt even more in the future. They will need to consider, for example, different crop varieties. Some plants have a natural adaptive capacity, such as certain rice cultivars that bloom early in the morning, enabling them to avoid the damaging effects of higher temperatures later in the day. Farmers will also want to consider adopting varieties that are tolerant of extreme conditions – drought, or deep water, or salt, or new fast-maturing rice varieties that are suitable for a shorter wet season. They will also need to look at ways of increasing the amount of organic matter in the soil so as to help it retain water – by using more natural fertilizers. One of the main advantages of using biofertilizer and organic farming is that it is less dependent on water than farming that uses the thirsty hybrid seed varieties. And when the soil is fertilized with organic manure rather than chemical fertilizer, it tends to have a better structure and be more resilient to dry condition.
Under the close guidance of the Minister, of MOST, the following research activity for rural area development are being conducted at the Department of Biotechnology.
Research on Production of Natural Fertilizer, Biofertilizer, Biopesticide, and Natural liquid Fertilizer:
- The biofertilizer with seven kinds of effective microbes are produced, packed into bag of 50 kilogram per bag and distributed for cheap, reasonable prices. By using the biofertilizer and chemical ones alternatively, the use of chemical fertilizer can be reduced to 35%. The ongoing research is being carried out in order to produce more effective bio-fertilizer.
- The research on the production of natural fertilizer solution which enforces the plant growth and consists of various nutrient elements extracted from unmarketable fish and fish waste specially needed for plants is continuously conducted.
- The bamboo vinegar extracted from bamboo, which protects plants from harmful pests, and the diseases caused by fungus and bacteria is used as a type of liquid pesticide. As a liquid fertilizer, it also contains various different nutrient compounds and helps root growth as well.
- The production of natural plant growth stimulant using chitosan produced scientifically from waste of shrimp-shells, which helps all kinds of plants strengthen, grow rapidly and yield well. This include demonstration of how to use natural plant growth stimulant in villages.
- Natural liquid fertilizer containing organic liquid fertilizer from fish, chitosan and bamboo vinegar, which makes plants yield well and protects them from pesticides, and helps them grow rapidly, is produced and applied with budding plants.
Future Strategy and Key TVET Challenges for Promoting Green Jobs
Myanmar has abundant renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, biomass energy and biofuel. However, they are at the initial stages and presently studies, research and experimental works can be performed. More development works together with appropriate technologies are required to be made in order to utilize wind, solar, geothermal, biomass energy and biofuel as future sources of energy of the country. Key issues were identified as follows:
- electricity in rural regions
- lack of appropriate technology in agriculture, land use, livestock and forest sector, energy, waste management, transport and industrial sector
- lack of sufficient financial, technical and human capital, needed to transform the national economy
- making sound policies and incentives can stimulate private sector in the development program
- enhancing access to external sources of finance to achieve a green economy, through both public funds and private funds
- to have adequate information on each and every type of renewable energy sources of the country
- to encourage more inter-ministries and inter-departmental interaction and cooperation.
- to promote private participation in the development program.
- to define and specify energy policy incorporating renewable energy
- to infuse the technology in order to implement the family size biogas digester and mini-hydropower plant for rural area development.
The government of Myanmar is endeavoring for the suitable economic development of the country and the fruits of economic development to be equally enjoyed by its entire people. MOST is undertaking the ten programs which are aimed to reduce poverty in the rural areas through policy implementation on transforming TVET for the green economy. In line with the objectives of the green economy, the strengthening, upgrading, expanding and opening of new technological universities, colleges, institutes, technical training schools and opening of special training courses in order to produce highly qualified human resources are among top priorities of the ministry. In addition, competencybased curricula, new courses and researches related to the green economy are introduced in TVET programs.
At the beginning of the transformation stage, whereby green TVET program has been slowly introduced to the traditional TVET program, so many problems have been encountered including shortage of qualified teachers, lack of laboratory facilities, insufficient research grants, inadequate technology transfer and many others. Apart from giving best efforts in trying to overcome all these difficulties, Myanmar is fortunate enough to have a wealth of natural resources and broad spectrum of biodiversity to be able to succeed. Such efforts had born into fruition with the poverty rate in Myanmar dropping from 32% to 26% of basic needs of households based on the statistics collected jointly by UNDP and Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. In addition, Myanmar has proven to be more than being a carbon sink nation, with a net value of 67863 Gg CO2 e in the year 2000, which had been made possible by the vast forest resources.10 Services of the social scientists, in addition to engineers, scientists/technologist, are therefore, essentially required not only to provide local development but also to enhance local prosperity. Therefore, the government’s efforts and endeavors through programs on green skill research projects are vital in transforming TVET in support of the green economy program to address poverty reduction which is visualized to turn remote villages to modern cities of Myanmar in the future.
- Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green economy
- Mya Mya Oo (2008). Sustainable Development of VTET in Myanmar, 19th Governing Board Meeting. Brunei.
- Technology and State Development, Ministry of Science and Technology, 2002.
- The Third annual conference of the South Asia Women’s Network (SWAN) July 2011: for a real green economy
- National level workshop on Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation, The New Light of Myanmar, 21st May 2011.
- U Soe Myint (2001). Renewable Energy in Myanmar (Status and Program)
- Mya Mya Oo (2010). Current Status of Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and Reduction of Poverty in Myanmar
- Department of Hydropower (2006). Ministry of Electric Power No. 1
- Statistical Yearbook (2000). Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, Myanmar
- Soe Soe Ohn (2010). Database for Biogas Energy Project, Ministry of Science and Technology, Myanmar
- U Win Khaing (2007). The Third New and Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Forum, Myanmar
- Aye Aye Khai (2011). Current Status of Research and Development Activities conducted in Myanmar for Rural Community Development
- Preparation of the initial National Communication under UN Framework Convention on Climate Change End of Project Review Workshop: National Commission for Environmental Affairs & United Nations Environment Programme (2010), Yangon.